Topology for Pipe Networks
Gas, water and heating pipe networks can be displayed in the IDS HIGH-LEIT SCADA system in different colours, based on their supply status.
The calculations that are performed for this purpose are based on the network topology, the states of the networks elements, the supply area and the master data. For this purpose, each source defines its own supply area. To each supply area, a network element is assigned if it is supplied by the corresponding source. Network elements that are supplied by several sources belong to several different supply areas. Colouring of the network is done based on the assignment of a network element to one or several supply areas.
The pipe network topology offers a selection of colouring variations (pressure, flow rate, pipe parameters). In addition, the plausibility of flow rates and valve positions is verified.
Topologie for Electricity and Fault Localization
The topology function calculates the states of an electrical power supply grid and visualizes them via process images. Visualization is based on a graphic node and edge model. If the status of the power grid changes, the topology function automatically carries out calculations and takes over the latest information. After re-calculation, the power lines and switches are displayed in characteristic colours, according to their status. The colours of live sub-grids depend on the defined priorities of the individual supply areas and the current states of equipment.
Additionally, HIGH-LEIT provides further colouring modes. Each process image can be visualized individually and differently upon the touch of a button. For instance, operators can call up colouring modes of pre-suppliers, grid groups or power circuits. Each switching operation is checked by the topology function for its reliability, i.e. a switching preview is provided.
The IDS SCADA system offers a zoom level-based, compressed visualization in order to reduce the complexity of process overviews. The system also enables marking, provisional settings and typical switching sequences.
Based on the information provided by ground fault indicators and ground fault relays, IDS HIGH-LEIT determines the faulty area and visualizes it accordingly in the grid overview image. To determine the fault location, information from trip signals, tripped switches, short-circuit indicators and distance protection devices are evaluated using reactance measured values.
Power Grid and Short-Circuit Current Calculation
Power grid calculation enables operators to determine the equipment’s capacity utilisation as well as the voltage profile. By way of this calculation, the active and reactive power flow in all grid branches (cables, power lines, transformers) as well as grid losses and current output balances can be determined. Calculations are based on parameters like grid topology, asset data, loads and power injections.
If the HIGH-LEIT SCADA system detects violations of the voltage range or excessive loads on equipment, these are marked in the process display and recorded.
The load flow calculation takes into account power injections from renewable sources and recognizes re-injections into the transformer station Prior to each switching operation, this function can be used to calculate and visualize currents and possible excess loads on equipment. Both excess loads and voltage range violations are automatically included in the topological interlock check. The load-flow calculation function can also be employed in the simulation mode, thereby providing operators with a safe means of preparing grid transfer switching measures.
Short-circuit calculations are carried out according to the Takahashi method on all nodes. It is possible to make parallel calculations of 3-pole, 2-pole and 1-pole faults as well as 2-phase to earth faults, thus enabling visualization of the results of each type of error. By setting potential fault locations in the simulation mode, users can calculate different short-circuit scenarios individually.
As part of switching permission checks, the system carries out checks on overloads, voltage limits and short-circuit resistance. In the event of possible limit violation, HIGH-LEIT sends warning to the operators, indicating possible overloads as well as over- or undervoltage.
The owners of power supply grids have a duty to provide training to their staff with regard to the handling and elimination of faults. Given that some types of faults occur only rarely, the ACOS NES offline training simulator is available to familiarize users with all types of faults.
HIGH-LEIT Netztrainer is a training simulator with the following features and functions:
- Training of staff takes place under realistic conditions It is possible to simulate critical grid situations which may result from the requirements of the Renewable Energy Act (EEG)
- The simulation mode can be run via a regular SCADA workplace in a familiar environment.
- The trainer can manipulate the equipment and components.
- Realistic simulation: ACOS NES offers a complete simulation of the entire equipment, including protection devices with real-time response which enables user training under realistic conditions.
Thanks to the wide range of modelable components, the simulator is ideally suited for all areas and voltage levels - from industrial stand-alone solutions to municipal distribution networks to national transport networks.